• MOZARAB: Iberian Christians who lived under Arab Islamic rule in Al-Andalus. They didn’t convert to Islam, but adopted Arabic customs, although in the 11th century most of them migrated towards the Christian Kingdoms.

  • RAID: a sudden attack behind the enemy's lines which has the specific purpose to destroy goods, obtain property and capture slaves, but not take and hold terrain.

  • PARIAS: a form of tribute paid by the taifas of Al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north for protection. It was a kind of vassalage. They increased the circulation of coin, at a time when precious metals, such as the gold dinar and the silver dirham, were scarce in Christian regions.