• BOURGEOISIE: French term used in the Middle Ages to describe the group of craftsmen, artisans and merchants, whose wealth accumulation came from their businesses in the city and that allowed them to remove the nobles from power. 
  • GUILDS: economic associations of European origin, that grouped the craftsmen of a same office, which they appeared in the medieval cities and they extended until aims of the Modern Age, when they were abolished.

  • THE WESTERN SCHISM: it was a period of the Roman Catholic Church history between the 14th and the 15th centuries, when several Popes disputed their religious authority and Clement V transferred the pontifical headquarters from Rome to Avignon (France).