• VICEROYALTIES: first administrative circumscriptions that divided the New World after the conquest of America. The first ones founded were: the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico and Central America) and the Viceroyalty of Peru (South America), both ruled by two viceroys as representatives of the monarch. The governors of provinces and town halls were under their authority: corregidors and cabildos or town councils. (The Audiencias administered justice). 
  • HOUSE OF TRADE: (“Casa de Contratación”) established in Seville in 1503, it controlled the emigration and the products for the New World, monopolizing the commerce with the Indies. In addition, it had to assure the tax collecting and train sailors for the Atlantic navigation.
  • FRIAR BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS: Spanish Dominican friar, historian, theologian, Bishop of Chiapas (Mexico), philosopher and jurist. Like Antonio de Montesinos, he censured the behaviour of the colonizers abusing the natives, and that was the reason why he was officially appointed “Protector of the Indians” by cardinal Cisneros.
  • VALIDO: person who had the total confidence of a king, prince or powerful person and, as a chief minister, he was in charge of the  affairs of state in his name. It was not an official position and concluded with the death of the monarch. In the 17th century the Duke of Lerma was the favourite of Felipe III and the Count-Duke of Olivares was the valido of Felipe IV.